ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.
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The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and remains in the intestine. The specific gravity of urine is a measure of the density of the substances dissolved in it and it depends on the number of dissolved particles and their mass. Uromodulin is routinely produced in the distal convoluted tube, and forms the matrix of casts. This applies particularly to diabeticswhere the idea of self-monitoring of the metabolic status determinations of glucose and ketones is self-evident.
Decreased reactivity may also be seen when formalin is used as a preservative or when the hypertension medication captopril or high concentration of nitrite are present. Elevated concentrations of ketones are not generally found in urine, as all these substances are completely metabolized, producing energy, carbon dioxide and water. Of the routine chemical tests performed on urine, the most indicative of renal disease is the protein determination. Other manufacturers use a diazo coupling reaction 2 that uses 4-methoxybenzene-diazonium-tetrafluoroborate to produce colours that vary from white to pink.
Tira reactiva d’orina
The urine test strip test for white blood cells detects leukocyte esterase, which is present in azurophilic granules of monocytes and granulocytes neutrophiliceosinophilic and basophilic. Some of the gram negative bacteria species that most commonly cause urinary tract infections Escherichia coliEnterobacterKlebsiellaCitrobacter and Proteus have enzymes that reduce the nitrate present in urine to nitrite. Working and living links.
Intestinal bacteria convert the conjugated bilirubin that is excreted by the bile duct into the intestine into urobilinogen and stercobilinogen. Therefore, sediments containing bacteria should be checked closely for the presence of red blood cells. The haem fraction of these proteins is toxic for the renal tubules and elevated concentrations can cause acute renal insufficiency.
Automated readers of test strips also provide results using units from the International System of Units. Due to its low molecular weight, albumin is the major serum protein found in the plasma, the normal urinary albumin content is low because the majority of albumin presented in the glomerulus is not filtered, and much of the filtered albumin is reabsorbed by the tubules.
Paper strips are often specific to a single reaction e. The bilirubin combines with a diazonium salt 2,4-dichloroaniline or 2,6-dichlorobenzene-diazonium-tetrafluoroborate in an acid medium to produce an azo dye with colouration that varies from pink to violet: Retrieved 13 March Early diagnosis allows appropriate therapeutic measures to be instituted in good time, avoiding consequential damage and further infections.
Many renal and urinary tract diseases may be asymptomatic for a long period of time. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The normal number of red blood cells in urine should not usually exceed 3 per high power field.
Traditional reagent strip testing for protein uses the principle of the protein error of indicators to produce a visible colorimetric reaction. Any deterioration in liver function reduces its ability to process the recirculated urobilinogen.
A second linked reaction, mediated by a peroxidasecatalyses the df between the peroxide and a chromogen a substance that acquires colour after a chemical reaction to form a coloured compound that indicates the glucose concentration. Archived from the original on The three ketone compounds appear in different proportions in the urine, although these proportions are relatively constant in different samples as both the acetone and the beta-hydroxybutyric acid are produced from the acetoacetic acid.
Traditionally, ascorbic acid vitamin C has been associated with false-negative reagent strip reactions for blood. In contrast, intact red blood cells are lysed when they come in contact with the pad, and the liberated hemoglobin produces an isolated reaction that results in a speckled pattern on the pad.
The test method consists of immersing the test ajalisis completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a orija period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine.
Análisis de orina: atlas color – Laurine Graff – Google Books
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. To ensure that this does not occur it is recommended the edges of the strip are dried on absorbent paper. For the paper strips the reactants are absorbed directly onto the paper. However, as the protein concentration increases, the colour progresses through various shades of green and finally to ajalisis. Blood may be present in the urine either in the form of intact red blood cells hematuria or as the product of red blood cell destruction, hemoglobin hemoglobinuria.
The reaction is specific for glucose, as occurs in all enzymatic reactions, but it can provide some false positive results due to the presence of traces of strong oxidising agents or peroxide from disinfectants used on laboratory instruments.