Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras; Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, B.C. to 13 A.D.; Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.; Dressel 3: Roman. An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least .. The first type of Roman amphora, Dressel 1, appears in central Italy in the late 2nd century BC. This type had thick walls and a characteristic red . Distinctive Features. This was the most common type of late Republican Roman amphora. Following an early classificatory scheme by Lamboglia (), the.
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But although the form had a long history, its floruit came in the last decades BC and in the 1st century AD. Quantification is by sherd count and sherd weight, to the nearest gram. It is not an estimate of the actual numbers present.
Pyre site Group produced forty-six Dressel sherds, all from the same vessel. A concentration of finds in the Cosa region and their rarity in southern Italy indicates production in southern Etruria.
Amphora assemblages from Britain are usually dominated by this form. Some of the exports listed by Strabo show that Britain had found herself drawn into the network of economic relations that led to the Roman garrisons across the channel.
Potsherd: Atlas of Roman Pottery
One wonders how a solitary Spanish amphora came to be on board a drressel bound from Italy at this early date. The six Haltern 70 sherds, nearly all residual, represent a minimum of two vessels. There are also some rarer special types of neck amphora, distinguished by specific features, for example:.
This is further evidence for the dwindling fortunes of the settlement after its auspicious start as a major consumer of Mediterranean produce in the Late Iron Age. Some modern winemakers and brewers are using amphoras to provide a different palate and tastes to their products than are available with other aging methods. The drssel were understandably surprised at its presence, but the vessel was not intrusive Metzler et al.
Dressel 20 amphoras and allied types
It is also present in some numbers in the eastern Mediterranean Will, ; Lund, One of the earliest examples comes from a context dated c. Their incorporation in pyre-related features shows that wine was consumed at Heybridge and not simply imported in order to be moved inland.
The form persisted through to about the middle of the first century BC Peacock, ; c; Tchernia, None of the sherds is abraded even the smallest and the number of joining sherds shows we are not dealing with old and redeposited material. Nevertheless the view persists that the middle of the 1st century BC saw a shift in the wine trade away from Hengistbury Head in particular, and the Dorset-Hampshire region in general, to south-eastern England, and that the Gallic Wars were the catalyst for this change Millett31; Cunliffe; Tyers The difference between the robust walls of Dressel 1 and the fragile Dressel is striking.
The congruence of the fabric with Dressel 20 shows that Haltern 70 came from the same regions of Baetica in Roman Spain see below. The rims are distinctive and should seldom cause confusion. Antica anfora romana vinaria, di tipo Dressel B1. Much lies hidden in the tantalising references to diplomatic relationships between Britons and Rome under Augustus and Tiberius Res Gestae 32; Strabo 4.
File:Amphora Dressel – Wikimedia Commons
Mindful of the scale of the excavations, one might have expected more to have been discovered. Whether or not this special status had a diplomatic dimension is another matter.
Technically, therefore, this newly identified amphora type could be lurking among the Elms Farm Dressel dresseel handle sherds residual in later contexts, although the rarity of the type and the demonstrable prevalence here of Dressel 1 make it unlikely.
Initial evaluation of the amphora assemblage indicated that it most closely resembled that dressdl Hengistbury Head Dorset ; there is – for Britain – an exceptional number of Dressel 1 amphoras. Honey wine mulsum and the sweet wine called passum made from dried grapes raisins are both also drfssel by inscriptions. With Pascual 1 it tends to be tall and vertical, or steeply inclined. The most common amphora type in Britain is also the easiest to identify. All of the small sherds are cracked and crazed; very little of the original surface survives.
It is conceivable that the disruption of the Iron Age trade patterns that had sustained Heybridge before the invasion contributed to its marginalisation.
There is still no satisfactory metrological scheme for defining subdivisions of the form. All three of the sites in Britain that have produced Dressel 1 in greatest numbers – Hengistbury Head, Heybridge and Sheepen at Colchester – lie on the coast, or in the case of Sheepen on a river only a few kilometres within reach of tidal waters. Permission Reusing this file. Dressel 20 at Elms Farm: It would seem that Gauloise 3 appears in the first half of the 1st century AD and that Gauloise 6 belongs to the same century Laubenheimer The vessel is assigned to that century on the basis of its small handles that approach the neck horizontally Martin-Kilcher, abb.
The foreign cereals that may have reached Silchester, Hampshire, in the Late Iron Age from the Mediterranean need not impugn confidence in Strabo Fulford and Timby It is only approached in scale by that from Hengistbury Head Dorsetwhere thirty-eight were retrieved in the excavations of and Williams The Dressel 1B was produced between the last quarter of the second until the last decade of the first century BC Peacock, ; c; Long, ; Hesnard et alii Martin-Kilchercites early salazon amphoras from contexts dated c.
The necks of pithoi are wide for scooping or bucket access.