Composer:Witold Lutosławski; Original title: Sacher Variation na wiolonczelę solo ; year of completion: ; instrumentation: cello solo; commission: Mścisław. Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his name. The work was requested by Mstislav Rostropovich, who gave the first. Witold Lutoslawski: Sacher Variation For Solo Cello Music Sales America Series Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his.
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Witold Lutslawski, Maciej Mlodawski. The first four lines of the score London: The work bases its existence mainly on the aural world that is a result of this derivation. Mstislav Rostropovich approached several distinguished composers, asking them to write miniatures lutpslawski he would perform during a birthday concert. While Thread I uses a strictly working mechanism to organize pitches, the pitch material of Thread II is used freely, without being organized lutoslawksi.
Disregarding whether it is a quaver or a semiquaver, the varitions note of the third and the following phrases have only one functionality: A possible reason for this is that the composer regarded the pitch A two octave above the first open string as the highest limit because it was undesirable for the composer to enter into a register where the characteristic timbre of the violoncello would not be present any more.
Besides that, each musical thread processes its material on its very own way. Although the lutoslawskki repetition of the pitch material without any derivation, Lutoslawski has succeeded in creating a development that continues throughout the work by means of a simple but highly effective mechanism.
The differences between the two threads of the work.
Since these pitches are used for the colouring and embellishment, they are not included in the analysis. However, unlike some lutoslawsmi these examples, the row in Example 2 has nothing to do with the concept hexachordal combinatoriality, which describes a particular construction of the twelve-tone row that consists of two hexachords which have in terms of the set theory the same prime forms, which means that the two hexachords are unchanged, inverted, or retrograded transpositions of each other see Cope The Sacher hexachord Forte number: The work ends with a short addition in the character of a codetta ap- proximately in the octave register in which the two threads have previously intersected.
Sacher Variation for cello solo. The principle which the increase of the numerical quantity of the phrases is based on.
In addition to that, these pitches are emphasized through the insistent repetition at the end of the second, third, fourth, sixth, and eighth phrases.
Another contrast between the formations are observed in the organiza- tion of the pitch material. Skip to main content. The excerpt given in Example 3 contains the major structural character- istics of the work within itself.
The octave registers of the pitches has not taken into consideration in this stage. In contrast to the rest of Thread I, here the dynamic levels mf, p, and pp are present, and the notes of the hexachord are used simultaneously for the first time.
The longest presentation of the theme leads to a climax, in which the cello frantically repeats the first two notes in the series: The second strand is filled with rapid, less distinctive figures, played mostly piano.
Update Required To play the media you will need to either update your browser to a recent version or update your Flash plugin. This robust structure allows very diverse musical elements to exist together.
Ninateka – Three composers – Sacher Variation for cello solo
As seen in Example 1 below, there are four letters that directly correspond to the note names in German: Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-Century Music.
Variaitons the first presentation of the Sacher hexachord in Thread I see Example 5the pitches of this phrase also are in the lowest octave register to be played by the violoncello. There is one more phrase of Thread I to be found in the last staff of the score, which includes three complete presentation of the Sacher hexachord. That the whole aural world, which is the primary foundation of the work, is going to be change if only one note in the Sacher hexachord is replaced with another one shows how integrated variatiions Sacher hexachord with the overall structure of the work is.
The increase in variatiions numerical quantity of the notes in the phrases is based on the simple principle shown in Table 1.
Sacher Variation for cello solo – Three composers – Ninateka
Thanks to succession of contrasting elements without ceasing, the work never loses its vitality while it constantly maintains its mechanic development. Discography – Sacher Variation for solo cello. After the repetition of the remaining first two notes four times, Thread I is ended with the note E flat, which is the first note of both the hexachord and the work. Beginning with 1 as the numerical quantity of the first phrase, the number of the notes in each one of the following phrases is determined by the sum of the rotation number and the numerical quantity of the former phrase.
Sacher Variation differs from all the other works of Luotlaswki since his Jeux Venitiens ofin that it contains no aleatory passages. This developmental process is ordered according to the system shown in Example 4, which is not based on a precise cause-and-effect rela- tionship as we have seen in Table 1.
It is not, as its title might suggest, in variation form, but a piece in which a six-note sequence gradually comes to the fore and takes precedence over other ideas which, besides being of an entirely different nature, are restricted to the szcher six notes of the chromatic scale and their neighbouring quarter-tones.
In sections of this strand there emerge successive, vaiations long fragments sounded loudly, as if they were chanted.
University of California Press. Ten of the twelve compositions, namely all works with the exception of those of Berio and Henze, were performed by Rostropovich himself on May 2,in Zurich, Switzerland Dunnagan Another remarkable characteristic of Thread II is that all the phrases except the last one end with the notes Lutoslawskl flat and D flat, which may or may not be respectively.
However, as it can be seen in Table 2 at the end of the analysis, Thread I and Thread II have completely opposite structures in many aspects, hence the formation of Thread II, which apparently does not have any organization principle in regard to the pitch material, contrasts the formation of Thread I, which is based on an extremely mechanical system, thereby taking place in the overall construction of the work.
The into two sections divided pitch material of the work. After this transposition, the note D becomes the lowest sounding pitch of the second presentation. The two developmental processes related to the hexachord, saher the gradual extension of the phrases of Thread I and the progression of the hexachord from the lowest to the highest register of the violoncello throughout the work, should not be considered as technics applied particularly to the hexachord.
It will be seen that not only pitches, but also other musical parameters such as the dynamic, the octave register, and the direction of the melodic contour are functioning as formal elements. This pitch is also transposed up by an octave in the third presentation, and this process continues until the 18th presentation of the hexachord.